How Does The Type Of Flour Affect Cookies
Flour Cookies

How Does The Type Of Flour Affect Cookies

  • January 16, 2022

You make many decisions when deciding on a cookie recipe: which kind of flour, which fat, which sweetener, which leavener, whether to add liquid.Your choices determine if the cookie will be flat and crisp or soft and puffy, pale gold or deep brown.cake flour (low protein, acid)/ more steam and puff; less browning.all brown sugar (hygroscopic, acid)/ soft and moist; less spread when used with egg.Cookies made with sugars that are high in sucrose (granulated sugar and maple syrup) or glucose (corn syrup) tend to stay crisp.Sweeteners high in fructose, such as honey, act differently.Fructose is hygroscopic (meaning it absorbs water from the air), so cookies made with a lot of honey get soft upon standing.Brown sugar is also slightly acidic, so it can help limit spread in cookies using an egg.Shortening, on the other hand, melts at a higher temperature, so cookies have more time to set in the oven and will stay domed.In most cookie recipes, the amount of soda is excessive for leavening and is used primarily for color.The amount and type of liquid can influence the spread and puff of cookies.This is particularly true if there’s an acidic ingredient (such as brown sugar, cake flour, or chocolate), which makes the egg set quickly to limit spread. .

What Does Flour Do in Cookies? (And What Happens When Using

What Does Flour Do in Cookies? (And What Happens When Using

What Does Flour Do in Cookies? (And What Happens When Using

If you click one of these links and make a purchase, I may earn a commission at no additional cost to you.No matter what you choose to bake, there are a certain few ingredients that will find their way into just about every recipe you try to make.These staple ingredients include butter, sugar, salt, and flour.Flour can help the cookie rise properly in the oven, and it also plays a massive role in reaching the texture that you are looking for.Biscotti is one example of a cookie that needs a lot of flour, as it needs to hold a specific shape as it is cooking in the oven.Some degree of whole-grain flour will add nuttier and heartier undertones to the flavor of the cookie.Some recipes intentionally use skewed proportions to create specific textures, while other times you may come across the result of too much or too little flour by mistake.This will often happen when you use a high amount of flour in cookies that have very few wet ingredients, such as eggs and butter.This means that more flour will result in more rise, which is not always optimal if you want light, crisp cookies.On the other hand, low amounts of flour will commonly result in crisp, thin cookies. .

Which Flour Is Best For Cookies?

Which Flour Is Best For Cookies?

Which Flour Is Best For Cookies?

When it comes to baking perfect chocolate chip cookies, it sounds so simple.Keep reading to check out all the awesome cookie science results.Chocolate chip cookies were one of the first things I remember attempting on my own in the kitchen.And what I remember most is that every time I attempted chocolate chip cookies the results always differed.Understanding how the ingredients function will help you achieve the perfect cookie in the end.This means that the flour can be responsible for making our cookies: chewy, cakey, even dry and crumbly.Amount Of Flour Used – incorrect measuring can result in a cookie that is dry and crumbly vs. chewy and delicous.For example, a cookie where you want it to hold their shape – like shortbread or biscotti – more flour will be used in proportion to the liquid.This protein, like a slinky can stretch and expand which means it can provide lots of structure and shape (aka rolling it into thin sheets of puffy pastry), can trap gasses (aka carbon dioxide when baking bread), and provide that chewiness we love (think breads, and al dente pastas).Which means the amount of gluten that forms will vary based on the type of flour that you choose to use.Of course to fully understand what happened with each cookie batch made with the different flours.The higher the protein content, the more structure it will provide for your cookies.More gluten formation means more carbon dioxide will be trapped between the strands of gluten which will help to make that bread or pizza dough rise.But this flour can also be used to give more structure to your chocolate chip cookies.This is your go to flour for cakes and other baked goods where tenderness is favorable.But you can also try using cake flour in your muffins, scones, even your cookies for a tender baked good in the end.You will also notice a difference in color with this flour and that is again due to the fact that all 3 parts of the kernel are used.Best Used For: Cookies, Bread, Waffles, Pancakes, Pizza dough, Pasta.Because most Americans measure by volume (aka you use your measuring cups) instead of by weight (using a kitchen scale) the amount of flour that ends up in the cup can vary.Stuff it to the brim the point you have to sit it on it in order to zip it (yup I’m this kind of packer).I always use either a small spatula or the back of a butter knife to get this part done.This chocolate chip cookie recipe used 1 1/2 cups unbleached all purpose flour.Here are the results of the cookie tests I did with changing the type (or amount) of flour used.As you can tell just by changing the flour resulted in quite a different cookie each time.The bread flour gave it a little more structure due to the higher protein content.Because cake flour has a lower protein content this cookie I found was a bit softer and more delicate.This cookie was probably the closest in texture and appearance compared to the control recipe.But I will say that I noticed that the cookie didn’t spread as much, have quite the same crispy edges and was a bit softer.Because bleached flour has a slightly lower protein content than unbleached flour due to the bleaching process, it did change the texture slightly.I added in an extra 1/2 cup of flour to the control recipe.Because of the extra flour, the cookie was thicker and didn’t spread as much.Without the right amount of flour to provide structure, this cookie spread into a big old puddle.So if you find your cookies spread too much, then it may be due to the wrong of amount of flour used.Just changing the type of flour or the amount can yield very different cookies!If you like this cookie science post, let me know and leave me a comment and star rating below! .

Which Flour Is The Best For Making Chocolate Chip Cookies?

Which Flour Is The Best For Making Chocolate Chip Cookies?

Which Flour Is The Best For Making Chocolate Chip Cookies?

There's variability, of course, and playing around with this key ingredient can make your cookies chewy, crispy, cakey, or extremely soft.We stuck to five of the most popular varieties and combinations of flours that professional bakers swear by, keeping all other variables constant.We used the classic Nestlé Toll House cookie formula as our base recipe and simply swapped out the flour, keeping the quantity the same. .

The Science of Baking Cookies

The Science of Baking Cookies

The Science of Baking Cookies

That’s because the structure of a baked good like a cookie has to be built from the ground up, and every ingredient flour, sugar, fat, eggs, leaven, and salt-plays a key role.Depending on its ratio to other ingredients in the dough, flour makes cookies chewy or crisp or crumbly.In dry cookie dough, like shortbread, a high proportion of flour to the small amount of liquid in the butter produces a tender, crumbly texture.In fluid-batter cookies like brownies, a lower proportion of flour to the amount of liquid or egg results in a cakey or chewy texture.For this reason, unbleached flour is a better choice where a slightly chewier texture is desired, as in drop cookies and nut bars.Aside from adding sweetness, granulated white sugar makes cookies browner (by caramelizing) and crisper (by absorbing moisture in the dough).The molasses adds moisture and, because it’s slightly acidic, causes the proteins in cookie dough to firm up faster, creating a chewier texture.When moistened and heated, the alkali and acid in baking powder react, neutralizing each another and giving off carbon dioxide gas, which aerates the dough, making the finished cookie puffier.Understanding how all of these ingredients work together can help you improve or even fix a cookie recipe when things go wrong.To see several practical examples of this knowledge in action, see our Test Kitchen piece on cookie troubleshooting.Beware of overmixing, which can turn chewy into tough, especially in dough that contains less than 50 percent fat by weight.Shaping Round dough balls take longer to bake, resulting in softer, thicker cookies.For even heating, use heavy-gauge aluminum baking sheets, and line the pans with parchment to minimize hot spots, prevent sticking, and speed cleanup.Oven position For best results, bake a single sheet of cookies on the center rack. .

Making cookies with bread flour

Making cookies with bread flour

Making cookies with bread flour

At King Arthur, we offer many different flours, all of which are suitable for various types of baking.Fun fact: Alton Brown even named his signature bread flour Chocolate Chip Cookie recipe “The Chewy.".It all comes down to the key distinguishing factor between different types of flour: protein content.That’s because protein level plays a big role in the way your flour behaves during baking, impacting your final products.Essentially, the higher the protein content in a flour, the more gluten there is to develop when water is added.Various protein levels are suited for specific types of baking, which is why we make so many different flours.The original Buttery Snickerdoodles, made with bread flour as called for in the recipe.The final cookies turned out identical in shape and size, and upon tasting, they actually had fairly similar textures too, with slight deviations: the bread flour version was marginally more chewy, while the all-purpose cookies were a touch more tender.I like to use chocolate chunks and scoop my cookies on the large side, so they wound up a bit bigger than the recipe normally yields.The appearance of the final cookies were fairly similar; the all-purpose versions were perhaps a touch more golden-hued (most likely from their placement in my oven, and not because of the difference in flour).When it came to the taste test, I wound up with expected results: the bread flour cookies had a bendier, chewier texture than the all-purpose, which ended up moderately more tender.There are no set industry standards for protein content in flour varieties, meaning it can vary across brands.For more details on choosing the right flour for your baking, check out this previous blog post.And if you've made a batch of cookies with bread flour and are looking for other ways to use up that bag, we have a ton of recipes to get you started. .

Types Of Flour, Substitutes and Recipes

Types Of Flour, Substitutes and Recipes

Types Of Flour, Substitutes and Recipes

From bread to cookies, different types of flour are at the heart of baking.Learn all about different kinds of flour and how to use them to make the best tasting baked goods every time!A basic knowledge of how to work with flour–and what kinds to choose for different recipes–goes a long way.All-Purpose Flour is made with a mixture of hard and soft wheat and lends itself well to cookies, cakes, breads and scones of all kinds.The high gluten content makes it ideal for creating yeast breads with an airy chewy texture; it also means dough made with this type of flour needs to be kneaded well to give the gluten structure.Pastry Flour on the other hand has an extremely low protein content.Less protein gives baked goods a lighter flakier texture ideal for pie crusts, biscuits, cakes and some types of cookies.Whole wheat flour includes the germ and bran parts of the wheatberry.This gives the flour a nuttier flavor and a heartier texture, along with a darker color and more nutrients than its white counterparts.Because of it’s low protein content, it’s not recommended for use in recipes that do not specifically call for cake flour.Whole wheat flour can stand in for all-purpose but will affect the flavor and texture of the finished product.If you don’t want your chocolate chip cookies to have that nutty “whole wheat” taste, then stick with white flour.If the recipe calls for this type of flour, you can make your own by adding 1 1/2 tsp.Due to the lower protein content in cake flour, it’s not the most ideal one to make yourself.But investing in a home kitchen scale isn’t strictly necessary if you follow my preferred method for measuring all types of flour.Use a spoon to scoop flour from the bag into your dry measuring cup.If you scoop the flour directly with your measuring cup, you’re likely to end up adding too much.Reminder, use a measuring cup made for dry ingredients, not wet ones!The types of flour you buy in the bags at the grocery store will come with an expiration date stamped on the side.If you’re buying flour in bulk, it will usually stay fresh for up to 8 months if stored covered at room temperature.Flour that’s gone bad will have a musty unpleasant smell and taste bitter.The best and easiest way to store flour is in an airtight container (both plastic and glass work well).Just be sure to store it away from items with a strong scent like cheeses or garlic-heavy sauces to maintain flavor integrity.Storing flour in the fridge or freezer can also extend its shelf life.Yes, it will, but don’t just add it straight to your pot of soup or you’ll likely end up with lumps.Whisk well until smooth, then add the mixture to the main pot of soup, and stir well.As much as my cookie dough loving heart hates to say it, yes, RAW (uncooked) flour can make you sick. .

I Baked The Same Cookies With 6 Different Kinds Of Flour—Here's

I Baked The Same Cookies With 6 Different Kinds Of Flour—Here's

I Baked The Same Cookies With 6 Different Kinds Of Flour—Here's

My idea of unwinding after work is tying on an apron, posting up in my kitchen, and rolling out dough, preferably while jamming to '80s movie soundtracks.When a sample bag of banana flour landed on my desk at work a couple months ago, I took it home and immediately put it to the test. .

Can You Use Cake Flour for Cookies? Learn from Our Test Kitchen

Can You Use Cake Flour for Cookies? Learn from Our Test Kitchen

Can You Use Cake Flour for Cookies? Learn from Our Test Kitchen

Learn the science behind this baking substitution, plus tips for cookies made with cake flour.gluten-free flour mix in green measuring cups Credit: Andy Lyons.When the protein and gluten in any kind of flour is hydrated, it offers the structure required to give baked goods their foundation and crumb.The amount and type of flour in cookies can make them chewy or cakey, crispy or soft.When mixed with a liquid, it can stretch and expand to add to the structure and shape (for example, making layers in flaky biscuits), trap gasses (like those that give focaccia bread its signature bubbles), and offer chewiness (such as in al dente homemade pasta).The amount of gluten formation varies based on how much you mix and what flour you use.It’s occasionally called for in waffles and pancake batters, bread dough, and pasta recipes, and is frequently mixed half-and-half with all-purpose.Since this uses all of the wheat kernel, this flour is heavier and more dense than all-purpose, which has the bran (the exterior of the wheat kernel) and germ (a portion of the internal seed) removed, leaving only the endosperm part of the grain.It’s occasionally called for in waffles and pancake batters, bread dough, and pasta recipes, and is frequently mixed half-and-half with all-purpose. .

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