Does Tart Cherry Juice Have Polyphenols
Tart

Does Tart Cherry Juice Have Polyphenols

  • January 16, 2022

Tart cherries (TC) are a rich source of polyphenols that elicit antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects.As a consequence, the effects of TC derived supplements on markers of human health, exercise performance and sleep have been investigated.Supplementation protocols have been highly variable across studies and the dose of bioactive compounds used has often been poorly characterized.Specific and non-specific analytical methods were employed for measuring the total polyphenol and anthocyanin content in TC supplements.A literature search was conducted using PubMed/Medline and Web of Science up to May 4th, 2020, including studies published in all years prior.The studies investigated the effects of TC supplementation on various aspects of human health, exercise recovery and performance and sleep.Due to the variety of specific and non-specific analytical methods used, the relative efficacy of different doses and polyphenol blends cannot reliably be extrapolated from critical analysis of the literature.Tart cherries (TC) are part of the Prunus species and are predominantly cultivated from the Montmorency cultivar (1).The chemical composition of TC can be affected by many parameters such as cultivar, maturation stage, agricultural practices, and environmental conditions.In general, the level of soluble solids increases as the fruit matures, whereas titratable acidity declines (2).All essential amino acids can be found in TC with an additional high level of melatonin in the Montmorency cultivar (3, 4).Tart cherries are considered a good source of potassium; other minerals exist in low concentrations in the fruit.Comparison of major nutrients, vitamins and phenolic compounds between tart cherries and other common berries.Collectively this results in a high total polyphenol content, on average 352 mg of total polyphenols per 100 g of fresh weight (fw) (12) and a greatly diversified profile that includes kaempferol, quercetin, cathechins, epicathechins, proanthocyanidins and anthocyanins (13).Although the anthocyanins present in TC have received the highest degree of interest to date, it is possible that the bioactive properties of TC arise from the interaction of the various polyphenols present in this fruit, which may act synergistically in modulating various molecular pathways (14).Growing evidence indicates that rather than exerting direct antioxidant effects as radical scavengers, polyphenols upregulate endogenous antioxidant capacity via activation of the transcription factor nuclear related factor 2 (Nrf2)/antioxidant response element (ARE) pathway (19, 20).Signaling is suggested to be induced by quinones, produced via exposure of polyphenols to reactive oxygen species.In vitro, polyphenols have been shown to have the potential to protect the Keap1-Nrf2 complex against ubiquitylation and degradation, and to promote Nrf2 phosphorylation.Phosphorylated Nrf2 translocates to the nucleus resulting in downstream gene and protein expression [for reviews see (21, 22)], culminating with increased synthesis of phase || detoxifying and antioxidant enzymes (22).Furthermore, polyphenols may inhibit the expression and activity of superoxide producing enzymes such as nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAPDH) oxidase (23–25), thereby reducing the formation of ROS.The current body of literature indicates that polyphenols inhibit the enzymatic activity and expression of the two cyclooxygenase (COX) isoforms, COX1 and COX 2 (26, 27), thus preventing the formation of prostaglandins, a group of lipid compounds that are involved in the inflammatory response by promoting swelling and pain (28).Furthermore, polyphenols may also potentially inhibit the activation of nuclear factor-κ B (NF-κB) (29), a transcription factor that modulates the expression of over 200 genes involved in the body's pro-inflammatory response.These bioactive properties provide important potential applications for TC supplementation in the management and treatment of various clinical pathologies which are linked to chronic elevation of oxidative stress and inflammation, such as cardiovascular and metabolic diseases (30–33).Indeed, there is evidence to suggest that TC supplementation is able to reduce pain and other clinical symptoms associated with knee osteoarthritis (34), to improve vascular function and cardio-metabolic markers (35–37) and to reduce uric acid markers, which has important implications for gout management (38, 39).The increased production of ROS during intense exercise impairs blood flow and vasodilation (43) and may also impair calcium handling and sensitivity, and disrupt mitochondrial function (44), resulting in ergolytic effects on exercise performance.Given the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of TC, the potential ergogenic effects of its supplementation for exercise recovery and performance have been investigated.In contrast, seven studies found no improvements in muscle function recovery or subsequent physical performance following TC supplementation (52–58).A limited number of studies have found improvements in sleep duration and/or quality in both young (64) and older (65, 66) subjects.To date, there have been multiple narrative reviews exploring the applications of TC and derived dietary supplements for human health (40, 67), exercise recovery and performance (67–70).Furthermore, several systematic reviews have found favorable effects of TC supplementation on systolic blood pressure and systemic markers of inflammation (71), uric acid and gout (72) and endurance exercise performance (73).Alternatively, individual chemical constituents and specific chemical data can be generated by the use of advanced analytical instruments such as high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), mass spectrometry (MS), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR).These approaches have been less commonly employed in the TC supplementation literature, although the adoption of these techniques has increased (Table 2).None of the published reviews have attempted such an analysis due to the high degree of variability in the analytical methods used, and a reliance on the measurement of total polyphenol rather than specific anthocyanin content.A literature search was conducted using PubMed/Medline and Web of Science up to May 4th, 2020, including studies published in all years prior.Keywords included in the search were: tart cherry, tart cherry juice, tart cherry concentrate, cardiovascular health, metabolic health, blood pressure, uric acid, gout, gut health, gut microbiome, cognitive performance, exercise recovery, exercise-induced muscle damage, exercise performance, physical performance, ergogenic effects, sleep.No data restrictions were placed for publication date or subjects age, however only articles written in English were eligible for inclusion in this review.Extracted data were grouped based on the analytical methods used for TC analysis and presented in three tables.Table 2 includes the studies where direct primary analysis of total polyphenol and anthocyanin content (20/43) was conducted.Table 3 describes studies where no quantification of total polyphenol and anthocyanin content was performed, but values from previously published articles were reported (17/43).Table 4 describes studies that have reported no total polyphenol and anthocyanin content values (6/43).Twenty studies that report conducting an analysis of TC supplement total polyphenol/anthocyanin content are included in Table 2.The type of dietary supplements were TC juice, concentrate, powder and capsules, produced by various manufacturers.Similarly, several studies provided the anthocyanin content of the dietary supplement used but did not indicate the analytical method used for this measurement.The type of dietary supplements used were TC juice, concentrate, powder and capsules, produced by various manufacturers.No values for the total polyphenol or the anthocyanin content of the dietary supplements used were reported in these studies.The goal of this review was to critically analyse the analytical methods employed to characterize TC supplement phenolic composition with the aim of generating evidence-based recommendations for good practice in the analysis and reporting of the polyphenol content and profile of TC products in future studies.From the studies included in this review, less than half conducted an analysis of the specific batch of TC supplement used, with an even lower number (~30%) reporting both the total phenolic and anthocyanin content.Furthermore, specific and non-specific analytical methods were used in these studies for the characterization of TC supplements, with the latter being most frequently utilized.Furthermore, although less frequently encountered in the studies identified in this review, other non-specific analytical methods, for example antioxidant activity measurements, inducing oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), DDPH, and ABTS, have been previously used for examining the chemistry of TC (101, 102).Nevertheless, in recent years, researchers have come to recognize the limitations of these non-specific methods, as they are susceptible to pH, solvent, and sample matric effects (98, 99, 103).Especially for fruits, like berries and oranges, strong interferences can be found with components, such as organic acids and reducing sugars, which greatly undermine the reliability of the results (100).Recent advances in chromatographic methods, such as HPLC UV/MS, have enabled researchers to provide more specific and accurate quantification of anthocyanin in tart cherries.Liquid chromatography has the capability of determining individual anthocyanin levels to mg/kg or μg/kg, depending on the detection method.Thus, HPLC coupled to various type of MS is preferable since these approaches allow exact molecular weight determinations (113).Evaluating parameters, such as specificity, precision, linearity, accuracy, range, detection limit, quantitation limit, robustness, and system suitability, is a basic requirement of the United States Pharmacopeia and AOAC INTERNATIONAL for analytical methods (114, 115).Tart cherry showed a unique chemical profile and matrix effects in the literature, indicating a strong need for a method validation process to ensure the accuracy of the data.The different analytical methods used for the characterization of TC supplements also potentially influence the findings.These data highlight the importance of standardizing the analytical methods used for the characterization of TC supplements, with the goal of allowing effective comparisons among the studies.An additional study (94) indicated the total anthocyanin content provided by the manufacturer, without batch-testing the TC supplement used.These studies compound the lack of clarity surrounding the polyphenol dose and profile provided via TC supplementation.Alongside these analytical shortcomings within the TC literature, it is important to briefly note that the supplementation protocols used within the studies included in this review also varied considerably.Large differences were identified between studies with regard to both the duration of the supplementation protocol and the intended daily polyphenol and anthocyanin dose provided.When these sources of heterogeneity are considered in parallel with the inadequate analytical methods employed for characterizing TC supplements, comparisons across research studies are not reliable.There is no standard reference material or consistent sample that could provide a reliable measure for comparison between studies.This raises a substantial challenge to the critical analysis of the literature in order to derive evidence-based recommendations for TC supplementation protocols.In order to allow for greater confidence in future crossstudy comparisons, better data on supplement composition is required.VS was responsible for selecting the studies eligible for this review and for extracting the required data for subsequent analysis.All authors were involved in manuscript writing (review and editing), study design and methodology development and agree to be accountable for the content of the work.The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.Evaluation of sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) fruits for their polyphenol content, antioxidant properties, and nutritional components.Detection and quantification of the antioxidant melatonin in Montmorency and Balaton tart cherries (Prunus cerasus).Traustadóttir T, Davies SS, Stock AA, Su Y, Heward CB, Roberts LJ, et al. Tart cherry juice decreases oxidative stress in healthy older men and women.Howatson G, McHugh MP, Hill JA, Brouner J, Jewell AP, Van Someren KA, et al.Authentic tart cherry juice reduces markers of inflammation in overweight and obese subjects: a randomized, crossover pilot study.Effects of tart cherry juice on biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress in older adults.Aboo Bakkar Z, Fulford J, Gates PE, Jackman SR, Jones AM, Bond B, et al.

Montmorency cherry supplementation attenuates vascular dysfunction induced by prolonged forearm occlusion in overweight, middle-aged men.Poonam V, Kumar G, S Reddy LC, Jain R, K Sharma S, K Prasad A, et al. Chemical constituents of the genus Prunus and their medicinal properties.Kirakosyan A, Seymour EM, Noon KR, Llanes DEU, Kaufman PB, Warber SL, et al. Interactions of antioxidants isolated from tart cherry (Prunus cerasus) fruits.Kirakosyan A, Seymour EM, Llanes DEU, Kaufman PB, Bolling SF.Shukitt-Hale B, Kelly ME, Bielinski DF, Fisher DR. Tart cherry extracts reduce inflammatory and oxidative stress signaling in microglial cells.The inhibitory potential of Montmorency tart cherry on key enzymes relevant to type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease.Scapagnini G, Sonya V, Nader AG, Calogero C, Zella D, Fabio G.

Modulation of Nrf2/ARE pathway by food polyphenols: a nutritional neuroprotective strategy for cognitive and neurodegenerative disorders.Forman HJ, Davies KJ, Ursini F. How do nutritional antioxidants really work: nucleophilic tone and para-hormesis versus free radical scavenging in vivo.Dávalos A, de la Pena G, Sanchez-Martin CC, Guerra MT, Bartolome B, Lasunción MA.Effects of red grape juice polyphenols in NADPH oxidase subunit expression in human neutrophils and mononuclear blood cells.Extra virgin olive oil rich in polyphenols modulates VEGF-induced angiogenic responses by preventing NADPH oxidase activity and expression.Rodriguez-Mateos A, Rendeiro C, Bergillos-Meca T, Tabatabaee S, George TW, Heiss C, et al. Intake and time dependence of blueberry flavonoid–induced improvements in vascular function: a randomized, controlled, double-blind, crossover intervention study with mechanistic insights into biological activity.Scoditti E, Calabriso N, Massaro M, Pellegrino M, Storelli C, Martines G, et al.

Mediterranean diet polyphenols reduce inflammatory angiogenesis through MMP-9 and COX-2 inhibition in human vascular endothelial cells: a potentially protective mechanism in atherosclerotic vascular disease and cancer.Karlsen A, Retterstøl L, Laake P, Paur I, Kjølsrud-Bøhn S, Sandvik L, et al. Anthocyanins inhibit nuclear factor-κ B activation in monocytes and reduce plasma concentrations of pro-inflammatory mediators in healthy adults.Heitzer T, Schlinzig T, Krohn K, Meinertz T, Münzel T.

Endothelial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and risk of cardiovascular events in patients with coronary artery disease.Fischer R, Maier O. Interrelation of oxidative stress and inflammation in neurodegenerative disease: role of TNF.Randomized double-blind crossover study of the efficacy of a tart cherry juice blend in treatment of osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee.Keane KM, George TW, Constantinou CL, Brown MA, Clifford T, Howatson G.

Effects of Montmorency tart cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) consumption on vascular function in men with early hypertension.Impact of tart cherry juice on systolic blood pressure and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in older adults: a randomized controlled trial.Desai T, Roberts M, Bottoms L. Effects of Montmorency tart cherry supplementation on cardio-metabolic markers in metabolic syndrome participants: a pilot study.Bell PG, Gaze DC, Davison GW, George TW, Scotter MJ, Howatson G. Montmorency tart cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) concentrate lowers uric acid, independent of plasma cyanidin-3-O-glucosiderutinoside.Consumption of 100% tart cherry juice reduces serum urate in overweight and obese adults.Suzuki K, Nakaji S, Yamada M, Liu Q, Kurakake S, Okamura N, et al.

Impact of a competitive marathon race on systemic cytokine and neutrophil responses Med Sci Sports Exerc.Muscle damage, inflammatory, immune and performance responses to three football games in 1 week in competitive male players.Donato AJ, Uberoi A, Bailey DM, Walter Wray D, Richardson RS.Exercise-induced brachial artery vasodilation: effects of antioxidants and exercise training in elderly men.Connolly DAJ, McHugh MP, Padilla-Zakour O. Efficacy of a tart cherry juice blend in preventing the symptoms of muscle damage.Montmorency cherry juice reduces muscle damage caused by intensive strength exercise.Efficacy of tart cherry juice in reducing muscle pain during running: a randomized controlled trial.Bell PG, Walshe IH, Davison GW, Stevenson EJ, Howatson G.

Recovery facilitation with Montmorency cherries following high-intensity, metabolically challenging exercise.Bell PG, Stevenson E, Davison GW, Howatson G. The effects of montmorency tart cherry concentrate supplementation on recovery following prolonged, intermittent exercise.Brown MA, Stevenson EJ, Howatson G.

Montmorency tart cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) supplementation accelerates recovery from exercise-induced muscle damage in females.Bell PG, Walshe IH, Davison GW, Stevenson E, Howatson G. Montmorency cherries reduce the oxidative stress and inflammatory responses to repeated days high-intensity stochastic cycling.Effects of powdered Montmorency tart cherry supplementation on an acute bout of intense lower body strength exercise in resistance trained males.McCormick R, Peeling P, Binnie M, Dawson B, Sim M. Effect of tart cherry juice on recovery and next day performance in well-trained Water Polo players.Beals K, Allison KF, Darnell M, Lovalekar M, Baker R, Nieman DC, et al.Kupusarevic J, McShane K, Clifford T.

Cherry gel supplementation does not attenuate subjective muscle soreness or alter wellbeing following a match in a team of professional rugby union players: a pilot study.Effects of powdered Montmorency tart cherry supplementation on acute endurance exercise performance in aerobically trained individuals.Keane KM, Bailey SJ, Vanhatalo A, Jones AM, Howatson G. Effects of montmorency tart cherry (L. Prunus cerasus) consumption on nitric oxide biomarkers and exercise performance.Effect of tart cherry juice (Prunus cerasus) on melatonin levels and enhanced sleep quality.Effects of a tart cherry juice beverage on the sleep of older adults with insomnia: a pilot study.Losso JN, Finley JW, Karki N, Liu AG, Pan W, Prudente A, et al.Pilot study of tart cherry juice for the treatment of insomnia and investigation of mechanisms.Bell PG, McHugh MP, Stevenson E, Howatson G. The role of cherries in exercise and health.Vitale KC, Hueglin S, Broad E. Tart cherry juice in athletes: a literature review and commentary.Buckow R, Kastell A, Terefe NS, Versteeg C. Pressure and temperature effects on degradation kinetics and storage stability of total anthocyanins in blueberry juice.Keane KM, Bell PG, Lodge JK, Constantinou CL, Jenkinson SE, Bass R, et al.

Phytochemical uptake following human consumption of Montmorency tart cherry (L. Prunus cerasus) and influence of phenolic acids on vascular smooth muscle cells in vitro.Keane KM, Haskell-Ramsay CF, Veasey RC, Howatson G. Montmorency Tart cherries (Prunus cerasus L.) modulate vascular function acutely, in the absence of improvement in cognitive performance.Jackman SR, Brook MS, Pulsford RM, Cockcroft EJ, Campbell MI, Rankin D, et al.

Tart cherry concentrate does not enhance muscle protein synthesis response to exercise and protein in healthy older men.Separation, identification, quantification, and method validation of anthocyanins in botanical supplement raw materials by HPLC and HPLC– MS. J Agric Food Chem.Mayta-Apaza AC, Pottgen E, De Bodt J, Papp N, Marasini D, Howard L, et al. Impact of tart cherries polyphenols on the human gut microbiota and phenolic metabolites in vitro and in vivo.Nagy Á, Abrankó L.

Profiling of hydroxycinnamoylquinic acids in plant extracts using in-source CID fragmentation.Influence of processing and storage on the phenolic composition of thompson seedless grape juice.Lear R, O'Leary M, O'Brien Andersen L, Holt CC, Stensvold CR, van der Giezen M, et al. Tart cherry concentrate does not alter the gut microbiome, glycaemic control or systemic inflammation in a middle-aged population.Johnson SA, Navaei N, Pourafshar S, Jaime SJ, Akhavan NS, Alvarez-Alvarado S, et al.Effects of montmorency Tart Cherry juice consumption on cardiometabolic biomarkers in adults with metabolic syndrome: a randomized controlled pilot trial.Lee J, Durst RW, Wrolstad RE, Giusti EE, Hach MM, Hofsommer J, et al.Determination of total monomeric anthocyanin pigment content of fruit juices, beverages, natural colorants, and wines by the pH differential method: collaborative study.Khoo GM, Clausen MR, Pedersen BH, Larsen E.

Bioactivity and total phenolic content of 34 sour cherry cultivars.Lynn A, Mathew S, Moore CT, Russell J, Robinson E, Soumpasi V, et al. Effect of a tart cherry juice supplement on arterial stiffness and inflammation in healthy adults: a randomised controlled trial.Desai T, Bottoms L, Roberts M.

The effects of Montmorency tart cherry juice supplementation and FATMAX exercise on fat oxidation rates and cardio-metabolic markers in healthy humans.Effect of Montmorency tart cherry juice on cognitive performance in older adults: a randomized controlled trial.Morehen JC, Clarke J, Batsford J, Barrow S, Brown AD, Stewart CE, et al. Montmorency tart cherry juice does not reduce markers of muscle soreness, function and inflammation following professional male rugby League match-play.Stamp LK, Chapman P, Frampton C, Duffull SB, Drake J, Zhang Y, et al.Lack of effect of tart cherry concentrate dose on serum urate in people with gout.Davis GR, Bellar D. Montmorency cherry supplement does not affect aerobic exercise performance in healthy men.Harnly J, Lu Y, Sun J, Chen P.

Botanical supplements: detecting the transition from ingredient to product.Apak R, Gorinstein S, Böhm V, Schaich KM, Özyürek M, Güçlü K. Methods of measurement and evaluation of natural antioxidant capacity/activity (IUPAC Technical Report).Granato D, Shahidi F, Wrolstad R, Kilmartin P, Melton LD, Hidalgo FJ, et al. Antioxidant activity, total phenolics and flavonoids contents: should we ban in vitro screening methods?Comparison of old cherry cultivars grown in Czech Republic by chemical composition and bioactive compounds.A review on antioxidants, prooxidants and related controversy: natural and synthetic compounds, screening and analysis methodologies and future perspectives.Comparative analysis of strawberry total phenolics via Fast Blue BB vs. Folin–Ciocalteu: assay interference by ascorbic acid.Anthocyanidins and anthocyanins: colored pigments as food, pharmaceutical ingredients, and the potential health benefits.Quantification of purple corn (Zea mays L.) anthocyanins using spectrophotometric and HPLC approaches: method comparison and correlation.Lee SG, Vance TM, Nam T-G, Kim D-O, Koo SI, Chun OK.Evaluation of pH differential and HPLC methods expressed as cyanidin-3-glucoside equivalent for measuring the total anthocyanin contents of berries.Proteggente AR, Pannala AS, Paganga G, Buren LV, Wagner E, Wiseman S, et al.The antioxidant activity of regularly consumed fruit and vegetables reflects their phenolic and vitamin C composition.

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Broad Spectrum Polyphenol Supplementation from Tart Cherry

Broad Spectrum Polyphenol Supplementation from Tart Cherry

Broad Spectrum Polyphenol Supplementation from Tart Cherry

These responses to exercise are not necessarily negative, but rather are a necessary part of the adaptation process, providing the level of stress does not exceed the ability of the body to recover.However, if the stress caused by exercise is too great and the body is unable to recover adequately, long term reductions in performance level can occur, such as in non-functional overreaching, or overtraining [7], or in much more severe cases, can be life threatening in the form of rhabdomyolysis [8].Supplementation with plant compounds has been suggested to be able to reduce inflammation, oxidative stress and subsequent skeletal and cardiac muscle damage associated with intense exercise, thereby enhancing recovery and helping to stimulate optimal adaptation.Complicating the interpretation further, the enhanced recovery is not always seen as some studies failed to show either an increase in muscle damage [11], or a reduction in performance [15] from the chosen protocol, giving the supplement no damage/performance measure to recover from.For example, Bowtell et al. [3] saw a significant reduction in PC following 10 sets of 10 knee extensions at 80% 1RM following a Montmorency cherry supplementation when compared to an isoenergetic fruit concentrate.Also, Chang et al. [17] demonstrated a reduction in PC following 1 h of treadmill running with the use of a polyphenol supplementation in the form of purple sweet potato when compared to control.We hypothesized the polyphenol supplementation would result in reduced muscle damage and soreness and the recovery would be enhanced following intense resistance exercise. .

Is Tart Cherry Juice Good for You? Pros and Cons, Nutrition

Is Tart Cherry Juice Good for You? Pros and Cons, Nutrition

Is Tart Cherry Juice Good for You? Pros and Cons, Nutrition

Recent medical research has suggested that they offer a range of health benefits from exercise recovery to better sleep.Although additional research is needed, tart cherry juice appears to improve overall health by reducing inflammation in the body.However, the same thing that makes tart cherry juice so potent can also create complications for people with certain medical conditions.In a randomized, placebo-controlled study, tart cherry juice significantly reduced inflammation biomarkers that are common in chronic diseases. .

A Review of the Health Benefits of Cherries

A Review of the Health Benefits of Cherries

A Review of the Health Benefits of Cherries

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Health Benefits of Cherry Juice for Arthritis and Gout

Health Benefits of Cherry Juice for Arthritis and Gout

Health Benefits of Cherry Juice for Arthritis and Gout

Although preliminary, some studies have suggested that cherry juice could offer benefits as a complementary treatment for arthritis and gout.This article will examine the benefits of tart cherry juice in people with arthritis and gout, weighing the current evidence alongside the potential risks and side effects.Tart cherry juice contains anthocyanins, which are anti-inflammatory compounds responsible for the red, blue, and purple colors of fruits and vegetables.Together, these compounds make tart cherry juice a potentially helpful add-on therapy for people with arthritis and gout.Eight ounces of 100% organic tart cherry juice delivers the following nutritional value and helps meet the recommended daily value (DV) of several key nutrients:.Recap Tart cherry juice is rich in plant-based compounds called anthocyanins and polyphenols, both of which have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects.There have been a small handful of clinical trials investigating the effect of tart cherry juice on people with arthritis.A 2012 study in the Journal of Food Science reported that participants with osteoarthritis who drank 10.5 ounces of Montmorency cherry juice twice daily for three weeks had lower markers of inflammation (specifically C-reactive protein) than people given a placebo .Gout is a chronic form of inflammatory arthritis caused by the build-up of uric acid crystals in the joints and tissues (most commonly the big toe).A small 2011 study involving 10 adults with gout found that participants who consumed 8 ounces of tart cherry juice per day for four weeks had less uric acid and pro-inflammatory compounds in their bloodstream than those given a placebo.A 2019 study involving 25 overweight or obese adults at risk of gout reported that those who drank 8 ounces of tart cherry juice every day for four weeks had lower uric acid and C-reactive protein levels than those who were given a placebo.A 2019 review of studies in Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine suggested that the more tart cherry juice a person drank, the lower their risk was of having a gout attack.A 2020 study published in the journal Rheumatology looked at the effects of tart cherry juice in 50 adults with gout.Recap Tart cherry juice poses few health risks but may not be suitable for people with diabetes or those on an arthritis-friendly diet due to the high sugar content (24 grams per serving).Some studies have shown that drinking tart cherry juice can reduce inflammation, joint pain, and stiffness in people with osteoarthritis.Tart cherry juice is generally safe to consume, although some people may experience an upset stomach or loose stools. .

Polyphenol-rich cherry juice may boost exercise recovery

Writing in Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise​, the London-based researchers report that seven days of consumption of the CherryActive-branded cherry juice prior to, and after intensive exercise produced a significant increase in recovery for knee extension maximum voluntary contractions, compared to an isoenergetic fruit concentrate control beverage.The most recent figures available value the global sports nutrition market at a massive US$4.7bn, with North America ($3.2bn) and western Europe ($713.6m) dominating the podium.Dr Botwell and her co-workers recruited 10 well-trained men and assigned them to consume the cherry juice or the isoenergetic fruit concentrate beverage for one week before and for two days after a series of single leg knee extensions.Results showed that the knee extension maximum voluntary contractions (MVC), a measure of muscle function, recovered significantly faster following consumption of the cherry juice, compared with the fruit control. .

Ask the Expert: Tart Cherry Juice and Exercise Recovery

Ask the Expert: Tart Cherry Juice and Exercise Recovery

Ask the Expert: Tart Cherry Juice and Exercise Recovery

A 2010 study published in the Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports examined the influence of tart cherry juice on recovery following a marathon.1 Twenty recreational marathon runners were assigned to drink tart cherry juice or placebo for five days before, the day of, and 48 hours after a marathon.Based on the data collected, researchers concluded that tart cherry juice appears to help with recovery of muscle function poststrenuous exercise by increasing total antioxidative capacity and reducing inflammation and lipid peroxidation.Results showed that the maximum voluntary contractions during recovery were significantly faster in the tart cherry concentrate group vs placebo.Researchers concluded that cherry juice consumption did improve recovery of isometric muscle strength after an intensive workout.One theory proposed is that the high levels of polyphenols (including flavonoids and anthocyanins) found in tart cherry juice helped lessen the oxidative damage induced by the exercise.A 2006 study published in the British Journal of Sports Medicine examined the effects of a tart cherry juice blend vs placebo in 14 male college students.3 In this placebo-controlled, crossover design study, subjects consumed the tart cherry juice or placebo twice a day for eight consecutive days.Two weeks later, subjects performed the same exercise, though on the opposite arm and after crossing over their initially assigned supplement.The results found that strength loss and pain were significantly less in subjects consuming cherry juice vs placebo.As such, researchers concluded that tart cherry concentrate may indeed help decrease inflammation and oxidative stress induced by intensive exercise.If a client would like to consume tart cherry juice to help with exercise recovery, based on the amount given during studies, health practitioners can recommend the following:.Bell PG, Walshe IH, Davison GW, Stevenson E, Howatson G. Montmorency cherries reduce the oxidative stress and inflammatory responses to repeated days of high-intensity stochastic cycling.

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Carboxymethylcellulose hydrogels: Effect of its different amount on

Carboxymethylcellulose hydrogels: Effect of its different amount on

Carboxymethylcellulose hydrogels: Effect of its different amount on

Results of this study showed that proper formulation of food systems is important in order to maximize retention of anthocyanins and other valuable polyphenols. .

Effects of a tart cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) phenolic extract on

Effects of a tart cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) phenolic extract on

Effects of a tart cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) phenolic extract on

Porphyromonas gingivalis, a key pathogen involved in the onset of periodontitis, is able to colonize the subgingival epithelium and invade the underlying connective tissue due to the contribution of cysteine proteases known as gingipains.In this study, we investigated the effects of a phenolic extract prepared from tart cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) juice on the growth, adherence, and protease activity of P. gingivalis.The tart cherry extract also exerted a protective effect on the integrity of the oral epithelial barrier in an in vitro model infected with P. gingivalis.More specifically, the extract prevented a decrease in transepithelial electrical resistance as well as the destruction of tight junction proteins (zonula occludens-1 and occludin).Citation: Ben Lagha A, Pellerin G, Vaillancourt K, Grenier D (2021) Effects of a tart cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) phenolic extract on Porphyromonas gingivalis and its ability to impair the oral epithelial barrier.However, when oral hygiene is deficient, dental biofilm accumulates and develops into a complex microbial community with synergistic interactions leading to metabolic collaborations, nutritional interdependence, and oxygen consumption [1].The disruption of oral homeostasis induces a dysbiosis in the microbial community that triggers the onset of periodontitis, an inflammatory disease of bacterial origin characterized by the destruction of the underlying structures of the periodontium [3].The most documented periodontal pathogen is likely Porphyromonas gingivalis, a Gram-negative anaerobic bacterium that produces a broad array of virulence factors, including proteases [6].Studies have suggested that whole fruits as well as extracts can lower the risk of cardiovascular disease, decrease low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels, help manage type 2 diabetes, and reduce inflammatory disorders such as arthritis [14–17].Consuming tart cherry juice also reduces recovery time and soreness after resistance or endurance training by athletes by lowering oxidative stress and muscle inflammation [18].Proanthocyanidins from blueberry and cranberry have been shown to inhibit biofilm formation and the adherence of major periodontal pathogens, exert anti-inflammatory properties, and reinforce epithelial barrier integrity [20–22].Recent work in our laboratory showed that two tart cherry phenolic extracts exhibit anti-adherence properties and impede biofilm formation by the major oral pathogens Streptococcus mutans, Candida albicans, and Fusobacterium nucleatum [23].The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of a phenolic extract prepared from tart cherry (P. cesarus L.) juice on the growth, adherence, and protease activity of P.

gingivalis.Matrigel™ (BD Biosciences, San Jose, CA, USA), a solubilized basement membrane preparation extracted from the Engelbreth-Holm-Swarm mouse sarcoma composed of several extracellular matrix proteins, including laminin, type IV collagen, heparin sulfate proteoglycans, and entactin, was diluted 1/10 in ice-cold PBS and was added (50 μL) to the wells of a 96-well clear bottom black microplate (Greiner Bio-One North America, Monroe, NC, USA).A 48-h cell-free culture supernatant was mixed with the tart cherry extract (final concentration of 31.25, 62.5, 125, or 250 μg/mL) and fluorescent substrate type I collagen DQ (Molecular Probes, Eugene, OR, USA) (100 μg/mL).Protective effect of the tart cherry extract against the P. gingivalis-induced disruption of oral epithelial barrier integrity in an in vitro model The immortalized oral epithelial cell line B11, previously characterized by Groeger, Michel & Meyle [26], was cultured at 37°C in a 5% CO 2 atmosphere in keratinocyte-serum free medium (K-SFM) supplemented with growth factors (50 μg/mL of bovine pituitary extract and 5 ng/mL of human epidermal growth factor) and 100 μg/mL of penicillin G-streptomycin.The ability of the tart cherry extract to preserve the integrity of the oral epithelial barrier of an in vitro model infected with P. gingivalis was investigated by monitoring the transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER).The integrity of the oral epithelial barrier in the presence of P.

gingivalis and the tart cherry extract was also investigated by tracking the paracellular transport of FITC-conjugated dextran (FD-4; 4.4 kDa; Sigma-Aldrich Canada Co.).The statistical analyses were performed using a one-way analysis of variance with a post hoc Bonferroni multiple comparison test (GraphPad Software Inc., La Jolla, CA, USA).Discussion P. gingivalis is a key member of the pathogenic subgingival biofilm that induces chronic inflammation and that, in turn, leads to destructive periodontitis [6].In this study, we investigated the potential of a tart cherry phenolic extract, containing as main components procyanidins as well as quercetin and its derivatives (rutinoside, glucoside), to help restore periodontal health by focusing on its effect on P. gingivalis.The establishment of a dysbiotic periodontal community, of which P.

gingivalis is a key member, is largely dependent on its ability to obtain nutrients (peptides, amino acids, iron) from the proteolytic degradation of host proteins such as tissue constituents (collagen, fibronectin, etc.).Gingipains enable bacteria to evade the innate immunity response in periodontal pockets by reducing macrophage phagocytosis by decreasing the surface expression of CD14 [35].In this study, we showed that the tart cherry extract inhibits collagen degradation by P. gingivalis, suggesting that it may contribute to reducing the tissue destructive process.The ability of P.

gingivalis to adhere to several extracellular matrix proteins, including laminin and type IV collagen, has been previously reported [41].In a previous study, we found that the integrity of the oral epithelial barrier is strengthened in the presence of tart cherry extracts, as shown by an increase in TEER values and an overexpression of the tight junction proteins ZO-1 and occluding [23].Our results showed that the tart cherry extract can protect the integrity of the oral epithelial barrier despite a challenge with P. gingivalis by maintaining transepithelial resistance and reducing the flux of FD-4.This is in agreement with several studies that have reported that quercetin, a major component of the tart cherry extract, has a protective effect on the intestinal epithelial barrier by its ability to induce an increase in TEER values and the overexpression of tight junction proteins [46–48].

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5 Things You Need To Know About Tart Cherries

5 Things You Need To Know About Tart Cherries

5 Things You Need To Know About Tart Cherries

Tart cherries are a natural source of melatonin, which is a hormone that regulates of the body’s internal clock and sleep-wake cycle.Foods that contain probiotics are becoming increasingly popular and people are experiencing the benefits that good bacteria has on gut health.Foods that are abundant in natural plant compounds, such as polyphenols, can also positively impact digestive health by stimulating the growth of good bacteria living in the intestinal tract.Montmorency tart cherries are rich in polyphenols, and studies suggest that incorporating these into your diet may help enhance gut health.This power drink is not only delicious, but it’s packed with the health benefits of tart cherry juice, ginger, turmeric and more!Running, biking, lifting… no matter what your fitness routine is, tart cherry juice is great for relieving muscle soreness.Studies show Montmorency tart cherry juice has the ability to reduce muscle pain and weakness after long distance running and intense strength training.Research shows that tart cherries may provide many benefits to your heart, such as lowering cholesterol and triglycerides, reducing inflammation and improving belly fat.Cardiovascular disease is the number one killer of men and women in North America, so show your heart some love and be sure to exercise and consume plenty of tart cherries!8 ounces of 100% tart cherry juice consumed daily for four weeks helped reduce inflammation associated with many chronic diseases.8 ounces of 100% tart cherry juice consumed daily for four weeks helped reduce inflammation associated with many chronic diseases Lowers risk of gout attacks.Oregon Health & Science University found that participants who drank 10.5-ounce bottles of Montmorency tart cherry juice twice daily for 21 days experienced a significant reduction in serum biomarkers of inflammation. .

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